Features of depressive disorders among people of different sexes (literature review)

Keywords: Depressive disorders, depression, gender differences, male gender, female gender, age differences, child age, advanced age, psychopathological characteristics.

Abstract

 In a modern psychiatric practice, there is no doubt about the relevance of the topic of depressive disorders. According to the WHO, more than 264 million people suffer from depression. Depressive disorders lead to significant negative social consequences, in the worst case, shorten the life of those suffering from this disease.

In this article, based on the analysis of specialized literature, epidemiological data on depressive disorders are highlighted, the main clinical and psychopathological differences in the course of depressive disorders in males and females are presented. The features of depressive symptoms among people of different ages were determined. In the light of the above data, questions arise about the lack of information about depressive disorders in adolescents and young people, that is the most potentially able-bodied category of the population, and it needs to study their clinical and gender characteristics.

References

1. Alexopoulos, G. S., Meyers, B. S., & Young, R. C. (1997). Vascular depression hypothesis. Arch. Gen. Psychiarty., 54, 915-922.
2. Altemus, M, Sarvaiya, N, & Epperson, C. (2014). Sex differences in anxiety and depression clinical perspectives. Front Neuroendocrinol., 35, 320-330.
3. Angst, J., Gamma, A., Gastpar, M., Lépine, J.-P., Mendlewicz, J., & Tylee, A. (2002). Gender differences in depression: Epidemiological findings from the European DEPRES I and II studies. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 52(5), 201–209. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00406-002-0381-6.
4. Blanco, C, Vesga-Lopez, O, & Stewart, J. (2012). Epidemiology of major depression with atypical features: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). J Clin Psychiatry, 73, 224-232.
5. Copeland, J. R. M., Beeekman, A. T. F., & Dewey, M. E. (1999). Depression in Europe: Geographical distribution among older people. Br. J. Psychiat., 174, 312-321.
6. Fava, M., Nolan, S., & Kradin, R. (1995). Gender differences in hostility among depressed and medical outpatients. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 183, 10–14.
7. Global Health Estimates 2015: Deaths by cause, age, sex, by country and by region, 2000–2015. (2016). World Health Organization.
8. Goldstein, J. M., Holsen, L., Handa, R., & Tobet S. (2014). Fetal hormonal programming of sex differences in depression: linking women's mental health with sex differences in the brain across the lifespan. Front Neurosci, 8(247). https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2014.00247.
9. Gorman, J. M., & Sloan, R. P. (2000). Hate rate variability in depressive and anxiety disorders. Am. Heart J., 140, 77-83.
10. Goodwin, F. K., & Jamison, K. R. (1990). Suicide, in manic­depressive illness. Oxford University Press.
11. Halbreich, U., & Kahn, L. S. (2007). Atypical depression, somatic depression and anxious depression in women: are they gender-preferred phenotypes? J Affect Disord, 102(1-3), 245-258.
12. Jacobi, F., Rosi, S., & Faravelli, C. (2005). Epidemiology of mood disorders. Joan Willey & Sons.
13. Katz, M., Wetzler, S., & Cloitre, M. (1993). Expressive characteristics of anxiety in depressed men and women. J. Affect. Dis., 28, 267–277.
14. Kind, P., & Sorenson, J. (1993). The costs of depression. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 7(3-4), 191–195. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004850-199300730-00010
15. Kiveld, S.-L., & Pahkala, K. (1988). Clinician-rated symptoms and signs of depression in aged Finns. Int. J. Soc. Psychiatry, 34, 2229–2235.
16. Kornstein, S. G., Schatzberg, A. F., Thase, M. E., Yonkers, K. A., McCullough, J. P., Keitner, G. I., Gelenberg, A. J., Ryan, C. E., Hess, A. L., Harrison, W., Davis, S. M., & Keller, M. B. (2000). Gender differences in chronic major and double depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 60(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-0327(99)00158-5
17. Kupfer, D. J. (1999). Pathophysiology and Management of Insomnia During Depression. Ann Clin Psychiatry, 11, 267–276. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022321731612
18. Levitan, R. D., Lesage, A., & Parikh, S. V. (1997). Reversed neurovegetative symptoms of depression: a community study of Ontario. Am J Psychiatry, 154(7), 934-940.
19. Marcus, S., Kerber, K., & Rush, A. (2008). Sex differences in depression symptoms in treatment-seeking adults: confirmatory analyses from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression study. Compr Psychiatry, 49, 238-246.
20. Moskvina, V., Farmer, A., & Jones, I. R. (2008). Sex differences in symptom patterns of recurrent major depression in siblings. Depress Anxiety; 25(6), 527- 534.
21. Moussavi, S., Chatterji, S., & Verdes, E. (2007). Depression, chronic diseases, and decrements in health: results from the World Health Surveys. Lancet, 370, 851-8.
22. Murray, L., Fiori-Cowley, A., & Hooper, R. (1996a). The impact of postnatal depression and associated adversity on early mother infant interactions and later infant outcome. Child Development, 67, 2512–2526.
23. Seeman, M. V. (1997). Psychopathology in women and men: focus on female hormones. Am J Psychiatry, 154(12), 1641-1647.
24. Silverstein, B., Edwards, T., Gamma, A., Ajdacic-Gross, V., Rossler, W., & Angst, J. (2013). The role played by depression associated with somatic symptomatology in accounting for the gender difference in the prevalence of depression. Soc Psychiatry, 48(2), 257-63.
25. Sobocki, P., Ekman, M., & Agren, H. (2007). Health-related quality of life measured with EQ-5D in patients treated for depression in primary care. Value Health, 10, 153-160.
26. Benkman, A. T., Deeg, J. H., Heeren, T. J., & Van Tilburg, W. (1998). The epidemiology of depression in later life: a primary care perspective. CNS Disord. PrimaryCare, 2, 1–5.
27. Wittchen, H. U., & Jacobi, F. (2005). Size and burden of mental disorders in Europe – a critical review and appraisal of 27 studies. Eur. Neuropsychopharmacol. 15, 357-376.
28. Young, M., Scheftner, W., & Fawcett, J. (1990). Gender differences in the clinical features of unipolar major depressive disorders. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis, 178, 200–203.
29. Antokhin, E. Yu. (2010). Gendernye aspekty psikhogennykh depressii: osobennosti kliniki, podkhody k terapii [Gender aspects of psychogenic depression: clinical features, approaches to therapy]. Sotsialnaya i klinicheskaya psikhiatriya, 2, 52-60. [in Russian]
30. Agarkov, A. P., Agarkov, A. A., & Loguntsova, O. N. (2004). Nauchno-organizatsionnye problemy okazaniya psikhonevrologicheskoi pomoschi v detsko-podrostkovom vozraste [Scientific and organizational problems of providing neuropsychiatric care to children and adolescents]. Sibirskii vestnik psikhiatrii i narkologii, 3, 37-40. [in Russian]
31. Gurovich, I. Ya., Lyubov, E. B., & Chapurin, S. A. (2010). Bremya depressivnykh rasstroistv v otechestvennykh psikhiatricheskikh sluzhbakh [Burden of depressive disorders in Russian psychiatric services]. Zhurnal nevrologii i psikhiatrii im. S.S. Korsakova, 110(3), 77-82. [in Russian]
32. Iovchuk, N. M., & Severnyi, A. A. (1999). Depressiya u detei i podrostkov [Depression in children and adolescents]. Shkola-Press. [in Russian]
33. Dzeruzhinskaya, N. A. (2003). O strukture depressivnykh rasstroistv u pozhilykh patsientov kardiologycheskoi praktiki [The structure of depressive disorders in elderly patients of cardiology practice]. Arkh. Psykhiat, 9(1), 83–87. [in Russian]
34. Zelenska, K. O., & Koltsova, G. G. (2017). Kliniko-psykhopatologichnyi analiz suchasnykh depresyvnykh rozladiv poyednanykh z suyitsydalnoyu povedinkoyu u zhinok [Clinical and psychopathological analysis of modern depressive disorders combined with suicidal behavior in women]. Science Rise. Medical Science, 12(20), 39-42. [in Ukrainian]
35. Iovchuk, N. M., & Batygina, G. Z. (1998). Rasprostranennost i klinicheskie proyavleniya depressii v shkolnoi podrostkovoi populyatsii [Prevalence and clinical manifestations of depression in the school adolescent population]. Zhurnal nevropatologii i psikhiatrii im. S.S. Korsakova, 9, 33-35. [in Russian]
36. Rakhman, L. V. (2016). Kontseptualni chynnyky rozvytku ta pryntsypy likuvannya terapevtychno rezystentnykh depresii [Conceptual factors in development and principles of treatment of therapeutically resistant depressions]. Ukrayinskyi visnyk psykhonevrologii, 24(86), 104-110. [in Ukrainian]
37. Maruta, N. O., & Minko, O. I. (2003). Emotsiini porushennya pry pogranychnykh psykhichnykh rozladakh ta alkogolnii zalezhnosti (diagnostyka ta pryntsypy likuvannya): metodychni rekomendatsii [Emotional disorders in borderline mental disorders and alcohol dependence (diagnosis and principles of treatment): guidelines]. [in Ukrainian]
38. Maruta, N. A., Panko, T. V., & Yavdak, I. A. (2004). Kriterii kachestva zhizni v psikhiatricheskoi praktike [Quality of life criterion in psychiatric practice]. RIF, «Arsis» LTD. [in Russian]
39. Mirovaya statistika zdravookhraneniya, 2017 g.: monitoring pokazatelei zdorovya v otnoshenii tselei ustoichivogo razvitiya [World health statistics 2017: monitoring health for the SDGs, Sustainable Development Goals]. (2018). Vsemirnaya organizatsiya zdravookhraneniya. [in Russian]
40. Neiropsikhologicheskii analiz razvitiya detei rannego vozrasta s pogranichnoi intellektualnoi nedostatochnostyu [Neuropsychological analysis of the development of young children with borderline intellectual disability]. (2005). Sovremennye problemy pogranichnykh rasstroistv v psikhiatrii i narkologii: materialy nauch.-prakt. konf., posvyaschyonnoi 25-letiyu UGMADO Roszdrava, 16-21. [in Russian]
41. Osadshii, Yu. Yu., Kryuchkova, M. N., Barykina, I. N., & Bakanov S. M. (2019). Est li osnovaniya dlya razlichii mezhdu muzhskoi i zhenskoi depressiei? Obzor literatury [Are there grounds for the difference between male and female depression? Literature review]. Psikhiatriya i psikhofarmakoterapiya. Meditsinskoe marketingovoe agentstvo «MediaMedika», 1(21). [in Russian]
42. Kontsevoi, V. A., Rotshtein, V. G., & Safarova, T. P. (2011). Osobennosti ispolzovaniya antidepressantov v gerontopsikhiatrii [The use of antidepressants in gerontopsychiatry]. Psikhiat. Psikhofarmakoter, 13(5), 26–29. [in Russian]
43. Oleichik, I. V. (2011). Endogennye depressii yunosheskogo vozrasta (kliniko-psikhopatologicheskoe, kliniko-katamnesticheskoe i farmakoterapevticheskoe issledovanie) [Endogenous depression in adolescence (clinical-psychopathological, clinical-follow-up and pharmacotherapeutic research)]. [in Russian]
44. Smulevich, A. B. (2007). Depressii pri somaticheskikh i psikhicheskikh zabolevaniyakh [Depression in somatic and mental illnesses]. MIA. [in Russian]
45. Stepanov, I. L., & Goryacheva, E. K. (2012). Gendernye osobennosti struktury depressivnogo sostoyaniya i sotsialnogo funktsionirovaniya bolnykh rekurrentnym depressivnym i bipolyarnym affektivnym rasstroistvami [Gender characteristics of the structure of the depressive state and social functioning of patients with recurrent depressive and bipolar affective disorders]. Sotsialnaya i klinicheskaya psikhiatriya, 22(1), 38­43. [in Russian]
46. Tiganov, A. S. (2013). Problema vozrastnykh aspektov depressivnykh sostoyanii [The problem of age-related aspects of depressive conditions]. Zhurnal nevrologii i psikhiatrii im. S.S. Korsakova, 113(11), 3-6. [in Russian]
47. Tuvina, N. A., Balabanova, V. V., & Voronina, E. O. (2017). Gendernye osobennosti terapii depressii u zhenschin [Gender Features of Treatment for Depression in Women]. Psikhiatriya i psikhofarmakoterapiya, 19(5), 25-31. [in Russian]
48. Tuvina, N. A., Balabanova, V. V., & Voronina, E. O. (2015). Gendernye osobennosti depressivnykh rasstroistv u zhenschin [Gender characteristics of depressive disorders in women]. Zhurnal nevrologiya, neiropsikhiatriya i psikhosomatika, 7(2), 75-78. [in Russian]
49. Tuvina, N. A. (2003). Depressiya u zhenschin [Depression in women]. Kafedra psikhiatrii i meditsinskoi psikhonevrologii MMA im. I.M. Sechenova. [in Russian]
50. Khromenkova, Yu. Yu., Korsak, V. O., & Kapshuk, E. A. (2015). Psikhofiziologicheskie predposylki sklonnosti k depressii u muzhchin i zhenschin [Psychophysiological background of propensity to depression in men and women]. Byulleten meditsinskikh Internet-konferentsii, 5(5), 741. [in Russian]
51. Chaban, O. S., & Khaustova, O. (2014). Depresyvni rozlady u patsientiv pokhylogo viku: problemy diagnostyky i terapiі [Depressive disorders in elderly patients: problems of diagnosis and therapy]. NeuroNews, 2(1), 14–20. [in Ukrainian]
Published
2021-09-22
How to Cite
Kotenko, A. (2021). Features of depressive disorders among people of different sexes (literature review). Kyiv Journal of Modern Psychology and Psychotherapy, 2, 17-29. Retrieved from https://mpp-journal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/9